Alternative Fuels & Vehicles


PEV Toyota ImageIn 2012, the Southern California Association of Governments led a collaborative process to prepare Southern California for the anticipated influx of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the region, which could be as high as 700,000 by 2022 according to SCAG research. PEVs will reduce air pollution, decrease our dependency on foreign oil and attract green businesses to Southern California. SCAG included PEV-related actions and strategies in the 2012–2035 Regional Transportation Plan/Sustainable Communities Strategy (RTP/SCS) to support and expand this effort.

Since then SCAG has continued to collaborate with regional partners to secure planning and implementation funding to build out the regional PEV charging network. In Spring 2015, SCAG was awarded a grant to continue planning and outreach related to the challenges of retrofitting existing multi-family housing buildings with charging stations. In addition, SCAG is updating and refining growth projections for PEVs and including growth projections for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles. These figures will inform policies under development as part of the 2016-2040 RTP/SCS.

Transportation and Alternative Fuels

California is working to expand the use and production of alternative fuels and vehicles for their benefits to air quality, climate change and to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels.  Executive Order S-1-07, the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS), calls for a reduction of at least 10 percent in the carbon intensity of California’s transportation fuels by 2020. It instructed the California Environmental Protection Agency to work with other state agencies to develop a schedule to meet the 2020 target.  

The State Air Resources Board (ARB) has numerous incentive programs to encourage development of alternative fuels and vehicles.

Common alternative fuel options include the following:

Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEVs)

There are two types of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) – battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). BEVs run on electricity stored in batteries and have an electric motor rather than a gasoline engine. PHEVs have a battery pack that is recharged by plugging into a source of electricity (wall outlet, solar panels) as well as an internal combustion engine that is refueled with gasoline.


Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are zero emission and run on compressed hydrogen that produces electricity to power the vehicle. A fuel cell can be used in combination with an electric motor to drive a vehicle.


Biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from renewable resources, such as soybeans or used restaurant grease. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can be used in diesel engines with no major modifications.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a gasoline and diesel fuel alternative consisting primarily of methane. The gas is extracted from the source and compressed to a high pressure where it can be stored in a vehicle fuel tank.


E85 is a blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline that is an alternative fuel for automobiles, and is used in flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs). The actual ethanol content of E85 can vary depending upon the month of the year and geographical location, and may be as little as 70 percent ethanol.

Liquefied Propane Gas (LPG)

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or propane, is a flammable mixture of propane and butane. LPG is typically obtained through the refinement process of petroleum products. LPG will evaporate and therefore is stored in pressurized steel tanks.


Clean Cities Coalition

Clean Cities Logo Image

The SCAG (or Southern California) Clean Cities Coalition coordinates the activities of both private and public sector proponents of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) by providing a forum to discover commonalties, collaborate on public policy, investigate opportunities for joint projects, leverage scarce resources and cooperate on promoting the benefits of AFVs throughout the region.



Current Projects 

AI-Based Mobility Monitoring System and Analytics Demonstration Project using Electric Vehicles

SCAG is partnering with The HORIBA Institute for Mobility and Connectivity (HIMaC) at the University of California Irvine (UCI) to research artificial intelligence (AI) and transportation energy efficiency in the City of Irvine. The researchers will be using 25 traffic intersections in the city to conduct their research. At these 25 intersections, researchers will install LiDAR sensors to better understand how AI can positively affect air quality, traffic, and safety. In addition to the 25 intersections, the project will use three fleets of vehicles to help their research. The data from these traffic intersections and vehicles will be used to create simulations to evaluate how these tools and systems can perform at a larger scale. 

To participate in upcoming listening sessions about this project please contact Alison Linder, PhD, Clean Cities Coalition Director, at

For general broader inquiries about the project, contact Blake Lane, PhD  

Southern California Electric Vehicle Charging Station Study 

SCAG is partnering with 18 cities within the SCAG region to help jurisdictions promote development and deployment of EV charging infrastructure to accelerate transportation electrification. 

The study includes tailored policy guidance to study partner cities; a regionwide Site Suitability Analysis to target areas for future EV charging infrastructure, with a focus on increasing EV infrastructure in traditionally underserved and hard-to-reach communities including multi-unit dwellings (MUDs) and Disadvantaged Communities (DACs); EV site evaluations; and a Passenger Electric Vehicle (PEV) Infrastructure Plan that will provide a roadmap for cities to spur development of charging stations and support EV adoption across Southern California. 


Southern California Plug-In Electric Vehicle Atlas

The Southern California Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Atlas includes maps, charts, and data at the subregional level, to illustrate factors that influence demand for charging equipment at specific locations. It contains 198 pages of maps, charts, and data at the subregional and Council of Government-level that illustrate factors that influence demand for charging equipment at specific locations.