Alternative Fuels & Vehicles


PEV Toyota ImageIn 2012, the Southern California Association of Governments led a collaborative process to prepare Southern California for the anticipated influx of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the region, which could be as high as 700,000 by 2022 according to SCAG research. PEVs will reduce air pollution, decrease our dependency on foreign oil and attract green businesses to Southern California. SCAG included PEV-related actions and strategies in the 2012–2035 Regional Transportation Plan/Sustainable Communities Strategy (RTP/SCS) to support and expand this effort.

Since then SCAG has continued to collaborate with regional partners to secure planning and implementation funding to build out the regional PEV charging network. In Spring 2015, SCAG was awarded a grant to continue planning and outreach related to the challenges of retrofitting existing multi-family housing buildings with charging stations. In addition, SCAG is updating and refining growth projections for PEVs and including growth projections for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles. These figures will inform policies under development as part of the 2016-2040 RTP/SCS.

Transportation and Alternative Fuels

California is working to expand the use and production of alternative fuels and vehicles for their benefits to air quality, climate change and to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels.  Executive Order S-1-07, the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS), calls for a reduction of at least 10 percent in the carbon intensity of California’s transportation fuels by 2020. It instructed the California Environmental Protection Agency to work with other state agencies to develop a schedule to meet the 2020 target.  

The State Air Resources Board (ARB) has numerous incentive programs to encourage development of alternative fuels and vehicles.

Common alternative fuel options include the following:

Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEVs)

There are two types of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) – battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). BEVs run on electricity stored in batteries and have an electric motor rather than a gasoline engine. PHEVs have a battery pack that is recharged by plugging into a source of electricity (wall outlet, solar panels) as well as an internal combustion engine that is refueled with gasoline.


Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are zero emission and run on compressed hydrogen that produces electricity to power the vehicle. A fuel cell can be used in combination with an electric motor to drive a vehicle.


Biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from renewable resources, such as soybeans or used restaurant grease. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can be used in diesel engines with no major modifications.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a gasoline and diesel fuel alternative consisting primarily of methane. The gas is extracted from the source and compressed to a high pressure where it can be stored in a vehicle fuel tank.


E85 is a blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline that is an alternative fuel for automobiles, and is used in flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs). The actual ethanol content of E85 can vary depending upon the month of the year and geographical location, and may be as little as 70 percent ethanol.

Liquefied Propane Gas (LPG)

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or propane, is a flammable mixture of propane and butane. LPG is typically obtained through the refinement process of petroleum products. LPG will evaporate and therefore is stored in pressurized steel tanks.


Clean Cities Coalition

Clean Cities Logo Image

The SCAG (or Southern California) Clean Cities Coalition coordinates the activities of both private and public sector proponents of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) by providing a forum to discover commonalties, collaborate on public policy, investigate opportunities for joint projects, leverage scarce resources and cooperate on promoting the benefits of AFVs throughout the region.



Featured Projects 

AI-Based Mobility Monitoring System and Analytics Demonstration Project using Electric Vehicles

SCAG is partnering with The HORIBA Institute for Mobility and Connectivity (HIMaC) at the University of California Irvine (UCI) to research artificial intelligence (AI) and transportation energy efficiency in the City of Irvine. The researchers will be using 25 traffic intersections in the city to conduct their research. At these 25 intersections, researchers will install LiDAR sensors to better understand how AI can positively affect air quality, traffic, and safety. In addition to the 25 intersections, the project will use three fleets of vehicles to help their research. The data from these traffic intersections and vehicles will be used to create simulations to evaluate how these tools and systems can perform at a larger scale. 

To participate in upcoming listening sessions about this project please contact Alison Linder, PhD, Clean Cities Coalition Director, at

For general broader inquiries about the project, contact Blake Lane, PhD  

Please review our factsheet with more information about this project.

Southern California Electric Vehicle Charging Station Study 

The SCAG EVCSS was completed in February 2023.  SCAG partnered with 18 cities within the SCAG region to help jurisdictions promote development and deployment of EV charging infrastructure to accelerate transportation electrification. 

The study included tailored policy guidance to study partner cities; a regionwide Site Suitability Analysis to target areas for future EV charging infrastructure, with a focus on increasing EV infrastructure in traditionally underserved and hard-to-reach communities including multi-unit dwellings (MUDs) and Disadvantaged Communities (DACs); EV site evaluations; and a Passenger Electric Vehicle (PEV) Infrastructure Plan that informs on the need and tools available for cities to spur development of charging stations and support EV adoption across Southern California. 

Additionally, SCAG hosted 22 listening sessions, a virtual meeting room, and 15 community events to engage with city stakeholders, industry experts, and local communities to raise project awareness, encourage EV adoption, and gather community stakeholder input.  Through this study, SCAG also created educational brochures and guides for cities and property managers. 

Study products and tools are available below to assist your community with Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure planning and you may view, download and share our informational brochure with your constituents.  

final products
Title Description
PEV Site Suitability Scoring Methodology Report

This report explains the data and methods used to evaluate the potential of sites in the SCAG region to host Passenger Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCS). Four scenarios were developed to evaluate site suitability; Baseline, Initiating, Progressing and Expanding. This report describes the assumptions, objectives and scoring adjustments for each scenario along with links to the datasets used. The results of this analysis can be found on the PEV Atlas.

EV Policy Memo Template for Cities  This memo offers a template that cities can use to determine their current progress to be fully complaint with California Assembly Bill (AB) 1236. AB 1236 requires cities to update and streamline EV charging station permitting requirements. The memo provides a checklist for compliance and best practices and offers additional information on best practices recommended by California’s 2019 Governor’s Office of Business and  Economic Development (GOBIZ) EV Charging Permitting Guidebook to further foster EV charger  installations within a city. Additional resources, and an example of how a city may apply this template are available in the completed Policy Memo for the City of Covina
EV Policy Memo Example – City of Covina 

This memo was prepared to assist the City of Covina with understanding its current progress to be fully complaint with California Assembly Bill (AB) 1236. This is a completed version of the Template Memo above and describes best practices recommended to further foster EV charger installations within the City. In addition, the appendix includes several useful examples including:  

  • AB 1236 Sample Ordinance Template 
  • An example Eligibility Checklist for Expedited Electric Vehicle Charging Station Permit from the City of Monrovia  
  • An example Permitting Checklist for Electric Vehicle Service Equipment for Existing Residential and Nonresidential Buildings from the City of West Hollywood  
  • An example City Fleet policy from the City of Hermosa Beach  
  • The Traffic Operations Policy Directive regarding Zero Emission Vehicle Signs and Pavement Markings provided by the State of California Department of Transportation  
  • A report on Accessibility and Signage for Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure, prepared by the CA Plug in EV Collaborative 
EV Funding Guide  A list of EV funding resources as of Feb 2023. For the most up to date info see the Alternative Fuels Data Center run by the US Department of Energy. 
Toolbox Tuesday Recording    In December 2022, the results of this planning study were shared in a Toolbox Tuesday. The recording can be found HERE.
Toolbox Tuesday Slidedeck  In December 2022, the results of this planning study were shared in a Toolbox Tuesday. The slidedeck for that presentation can be found HERE
Site Plan Template  This template provides an approach to site planning and cost estimates for EV Station Development. Estimates and guidelines are taken from the California Building Codes.
Site Plan Examples; City of Glendora  Using the results of the Site Suitability Analysis and input from the city, conceptual site plans and estimates were developed for 5 sites in the City of Glendora. A completed version of the Site Plan Template above, can be used to approach site owners and share information about site planning needs for EV Charging installation.   
EV Planning Guide for Cities  This guide was developed to assist cities in the SCAG region that are early in their EV journey better understand the broader EV landscape. It includes an overview of EV charging basics, funding for EV infrastructure, state requirements and design considerations, coordinating with utilities, local EV policy and procedures, and guidelines for successfully implementing electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS). 
EV Planning Guide for Property Managers   This guide was developed to assist commercial, retail, and multiunit dwelling (MUD) property owners and managers within the SCAG region understand the benefits and considerations of installing EV charging stations (EVCS) at their facilities. 
Regional Passenger Electric Vehicle (PEV) Infrastructure Plan and Final Report

This plan provides a roadmap to spur development of charging stations and support EV adoption across Southern California. One of SCAG’s goals of this project was to identify where EVCS should be located to best serve EV drivers, with a particular focus on serving people that live in MUDs, DACs, or other hard to reach segments. This plan serves as a final report for this study and describes results of study outreach and analysis, the expected demand for charging, and tools and guidance for cities to reach these goals. 


AB1236 requires cities and counties in California to formally establish a streamlined permitting process for electric vehicle charging station (EVCS) construction by September 30, 2017. As the sales of electric vehicles (EV) increase, the State views the implementation and adoption of EV infrastructure as not only a local issue but a statewide goal.
Check to see if your city is permit streamlined. 

Innovations In Clean Transit Webinar Series

Innovations in Clean Transit is a SCAG Clean Cities webinar series that showcases how Southern California transit agencies are going zero emission. With technologies and strategies like electric buses & charging infrastructure, hydrogen fueling stations, workforce reskilling, and public-private partnerships, clean transportation is a destination that has many possible routes.

Past Projects

Pathways to Clean Vehicle Technology and Alternative Fuels Implementation in San Bernardino County

This project looked at the vehicle-based portion of achieving GHG reduction goals and attaining criteria pollutant standards in the South Coast Air Basin, with a focus on San Bernardino County. Strategies for achieving these objectives differ in terms of their technological feasibility, emission reduction cost effectiveness, applicability to different segments of the vehicle population, infrastructure requirements, local economic benefits, and other factors. Given all these parameters, what is the optimal path forward?

The project also identified appropriate implementation strategies for local and regional agencies seeking to advance the penetration of clean vehicles and fuels.


Southern California Plug-In Electric Vehicle Atlas

The Southern California Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Atlas includes maps, charts, and data at the subregional level, to illustrate factors that influence demand for charging equipment at specific locations. It contains 198 pages of maps, charts, and data at the subregional and Council of Government-level that illustrate factors that influence demand for charging equipment at specific locations.