Case Studies

Overview

The case studies presented on this site explore tools and strategies for funding, financing, and managing TOD/smart growth infrastructure projects. They fall under one of two categories:

Funding and Financing Tools and Strategies

These case studies profile comprehensive smart growth funding/financing strategies and the use of different tools and resources, including emerging tools that are likely to become more important for California cities seeking post-redevelopment funding solutions & TOD/smart growth infrastructure projects.

Parking Management Strategies

Managing and financing public parking is often a key component of a successful TOD/smart growth plan. Many transit station areas need expensive parking structures to accommodate commuters and adjacent development instead of surface parking lots. In other station areas or infill districts, parking management strategies can help ensure efficient use of existing parking spaces reducing the amount of new parking needed while helping to attract new shoppers and transit users, mitigate traffic congestion, generate funding for neighborhood improvements, and protect nearby residential neighborhoods from visitor, employee, and/or commuter parking. These case studies describe various methods and strategies for managing and financing parking to support TOD and smart growth development in an urban setting.


About Case Studies

Each case study concludes with lessons learned regarding the applicability of different tools for different types of improvements and development contexts. However, each case study also highlights other sources, many of which are likely to become increasingly important in a post-redevelopment world. Relevant Tools are cited at the conclusion of each case study so you can explore in more detail how particular tools were used by other jurisdictions.

Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

County of Los Angeles West Carson Enhanced Infrastructure Financing District (EIFD)

County of Los Angeles West Carson EIFDIn May 2020, Los Angeles County approved a Resolution of Intent to establish an EIFD in unincorporated West Carson, making it one of the first County-initiated EIFDs in the State. The goal of the West Carson EIFD is to fund the development projects outlined in the 2019 West Carson Transit Oriented District Specific Plan. The boundaries of the EIFD are the I-110 highway to the east, Normandie Avenue to the west, Del Amo Boulevard to the north, and Lomita Boulevard to the south. The West Carson EIFD is one of SCAG’s most recent Pilot TIF projects.

Utilizing tax increment collected above the 2021 base year, the West Carson EIFD will fund pedestrian improvement and connectivity, utility upgrades, and landscaping and green space improvements to the BioTech park. Additionally, the County intends to deposit 20% of tax increment funds into the Affordable Housing Trust Fund to go towards affordable housing development. The West Carson EIFD term is 45 years, although it is projected to incur $41 million in funds for the County over the course of 50 years. The West Carson EIFD can contribute up to $120 million to the Affordable Housing Trust Fund, and generate $1.2 billion in economic output yearly.

With a fully formed Public Financing Authority (PFA) made up of Los Angeles County Supervisors and the draft Infrastructure Financing Plan (IFP) currently under review, the West Carson EIFD is anticipated to be approved by early 2021.

Official information on the EIFD can be found at
https://pw.lacounty.gov/pdd/proj/westcarson-eifd/

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Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

City of Placentia/County of Orange Enhanced Infrastructure Financing District (EIFD)

City of Placentia EIFDThe Placentia EIFD will fund transit-supportive and housing-supportive infrastructure in the communities directly to the north and south of the upcoming Placentia Metrolink Station, which will serve communities along State Route 91 – one of the busiest and most congest transportation corridors in Southern California. Specific improvements will include street upgrades, lighting infrastructure, pedestrian connectivity, as well as sewer and water infrastructure enhancements to increase housing capacity, as well as upgrades to the landscape. These investments are estimated to cost around $8 million, and will support an additional 1,600 housing units, 3,900 construction jobs, 1,150 permanent jobs that can help generate $800 million in economic output from construction activities, and $164 million in annual ongoing economic output.

To reach district formation, the process was initiated when the City of Placentia approved a Resolution of Intent on February 19, 2019 supporting the establishment of an EIFD in the areas surrounding the upcoming station, including the Old Town Placentia Area as well as the Transit Oriented Development Packing House District. The Orange County Board of Supervisors evaluated and supported a similar resolution on April 23, 2019. The City of Placentia / County of Orange EIFD was then established in September 2019 and became the first city/county EIFD partnership in California, when the District’s Public Financing Authority (PFA) officially approved its Infrastructure Financing Plan (IFP). The Placentia EIFD is one of SCAG’s Pilot TIF projects. Visually explore the Placentia EIFD through the City of Placentia EIFD Story Map.

Official information on the EIFD can be found at
https://www.placentia.org/860/Enhanced-Infrastructure-Financing-Distri

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Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

City of La Verne/County of Los Angeles Enhanced Infrastructure Financing District (EIFD)

City of La Verne EIFDIn 2017, the City of La Verne passed a Resolution of Intent to establish an EIFD at the future Metro Gold Line light rail station (E Street and Arrow Highway) and surrounding transit-oriented development as outlined in the Old Town La Verne Specific Plan. Property tax increment is projected to generate $33 million, and will go towards funding multiple infrastructure projects, including enhancement of connectivity (parking, pedestrians, bikes, rideshare), beautification, and expansion of utilities to catalyze development and accommodate housing growth. Private development projects include 1,700 new residential units 15% of which are affordable, retail, a business park, and hotel transit-oriented development are also valued at nearly $500 million in 2017 dollars.

Although initially the City established the EIFD without County participation, in January 2020, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors approved the County’s financial participation in the La Verne EIFD. With the County’s participation, the EIFD will receive an additional $50 million in tax increment funds. The La Verne EIFD Infrastructure Financing Plan was approved August of 2020, making it the second EIFD in the State to involve a city and county partnership.

Official information on the EIFD can be found at
https://www.cityoflaverne.org/index.php/home/bulletins/287-socalgas-requests-regulatory-approval-to-replenish-natural-gas-supply-at-aliso-canyon-storage-facility

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Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

City of San Diego Otay Mesa Enhanced Infrastructure Financing District (EIFD)

City of San Diego Otay Mesa EIFDIn 2017, the City of San Diego established an EIFD at the Otay Mesa community. The goal of the Otay Mesa EIFD is to fund and implement the priorities and projects outlined in the Otay Mesa Community Plan and the Otay Mesa Public Facilities Financing Plan. The Otay Mesa EIFD is coterminous with the Otay Mesa Community Plan Area, with the Otay River Valley and city of Chula Vista to the north, the Mexican border and city of Tijuana to the south, a County of San Diego unincorporated area to the east, and I-805 highway to the west as boundaries.

Using tax increment collected above the base 2017 year, the Otay Mesa EIFD will fund economic development, infrastructure development, and public facility improvements. These projects include housing development, economic development near the airport, public facility improvements (transportation, park, water & sewer) and industrial infrastructure development. The Otay Mesa EIFD is projected to bring in $970 million over the course of its life. The Otay Mesa EIFD Infrastructure Financing Plan was approved in June of 2017.

Official information on the EIFD can be found at
https://www.sandiego.gov/council-committees/omeifd

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Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

City of West Sacramento Enhanced Infrastructure Financing District (EIFD)

City of West Sacramento EIFDIn 2017, the City of West Sacramento became the first city in California to establish an EIFD. The West Sacramento EIFD encompasses 25%, or 4,144 acres, of the City of West Sacramento near the City’s Port and waterfront area. At the time of formation, the West Sacramento EIFD covered 14 subareas that had riverfront mixed-use development, industrial districts, retail districts, and contained redevelopment areas.

Utilizing tax increment captured above the baseline year of 2016-2017 and remaining Redevelopment funds, the West Sacramento EIFD is funding public facility improvements, economic development near the City’s waterfronts, and housing with the goal of increasing commercial and mixed-use development in this area. With the City being the only taxing entity in the EIFD, the West Sacramento EIFD is projected to generate $535 million, in 2017 dollars, over the course of its life.

Official information on the EIFD can be found at
https://www.cityofwestsacramento.org/business/economic-development/enhanced-infrastructure-financing-districts

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Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

City of Redondo Beach Enhanced Infrastructure Financing District (EIFD)

City of Redondo Beach EIFDIn May 2019, the City of Redondo Beach approved a Resolution of Intent to establish an EIFD at its now-closed AES Power Plant. Following the City’s Resolution of Intent, the County of Los Angeles also approved a Resolution of Intent to partner with the City to form the Redondo Beach EIFD in November of 2019. The Redondo Beach EIFD is proposed to revert the Power Plant’s 50-acre site into open space and park development, wetland restoration, and private development. The assessed value of the development on the area is $265 million. The Redondo Beach EIFD’s term is 45 years, although it is projected to incur over $71 million in revenue over the course of 50 years. Not only will these funds go towards developing park and wetland space, but will also fund circulation improvements (streets, parking, and coastal access) and site remediation. As of December 2020, the Redondo Beach EIFD’s Infrastructure Financing Plan is currently under review. With the County’s participation, it will soon become the third formed EIFD in the State to involve a city and county partnership.

Official information on the EIFD can be found at https://www.redondo.org/

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Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

City of Fresno Enhanced Infrastructure Financing District (EIFD)

City of Fresno EIFDIn April of 2020, the City of Fresno approved a Resolution of Intent to establish an EIFD at Downtown Fresno and the southern portion of the Blackstone Avenue Bus Rapid Transit area. With a focus on transportation improvements and investment, the Fresno EIFD will fund transportation safety and accessibility improvements, increased investment in bus infrastructure and roadways, streetscape and lighting improvements, improved wayfinding signage, and economic development projects. Collecting tax increment above the base 2021/2022 year, the Fresno EIFD is projected to incur $9.9 million in revenue over the course of 45 years. The Fresno EIFD will support the development of 10,000 housing units, over 22,000 in temporary construction jobs and 1,225 in permanent jobs, $3.6 billion in economic output from construction activities, and $211 million in annual economic output. The Fresno EIFD Public Financing Authority approved the District’s Infrastructure Financing Plan in October of 2020, making it the fifth EIFD in the State.

Official information on the EIFD can be found at
https://www.fresno.gov/darm/housing-community-development/#tab-10

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Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

Resilient and Sustainable Infrastructure

Resilient and Sustainable InfrastructureEIFDs can also be utilized to fund emerging climate change resilience strategies, such as Climate-Safe Infrastructure. This section will provide some background on and discuss how EIFDs could serve as a financing tool for Climate-Safe Infrastructure.

Background

With the State facing increasing temperatures, extreme heat waves, rising sea levels, and longer wildfire seasons, it is imperative that California’s cities and counties are adaptive and resilient to this changing climate. The State has passed several legislative measures to incorporate climate change considerations in local planning, such as Senate Bill (SB) 379 which requires cities and counties to incorporate climate adaptation strategies in their Safety Elements and Senate Bill 1035 which modifies SB 379’s timeline so that data on climate adaptation in Safety Elements is regularly updated. Additionally, Senate Bill (SB) 1241 requires jurisdictions to consider fire hazards, especially in communities or unincorporated communities in the state responsibility areas that are in high fire severity areas. Assembly Bill 2911 strengthened SB 1241’s local very high fire severity designation areas.

Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

San Francisco Treasure Island Infrastructure and Revitalization Financing District (IRFD)

San Francisco Treasure Island IRFD In 2017, the City of San Francisco established the Treasure Island IRFD at Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island, which are nestled between the cities of San Francisco and Oakland. The Treasure Island IRFD is overseen by the City and the Treasure Island Development Authority (TIDA), who is made up of members from the City of San Francisco’s Board of Supervisors. Drawing from tax increment as well as funds from a Community Facilities District (CFD), the Treasure Island IRFD will go towards funding housing development, commercial and retail development, public infrastructure improvement (streets, utilities, community facilities, etc.), park/open space maintenance, and geotechnical improvements.

While funds from the CFD go primarily towards the proposed park, open space maintenance, and geotechnical improvements, the funds generated from the IRFD go primarily towards the proposed housing, economic development, and property improvements.

Official information on the IRFD can be found at https://sftreasureisland.org/

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Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

Emery-Go-Round

Emery-Go-Round ImageThe Emery-Go-Round is a free local circulator system that annually shuttles 1.3 million commuters and residents between Emeryville and the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) MacArthur Station. The shuttle service represents the culmination of a partnership formed between the City of Emeryville and a constituency of local corporations that began in 1996. The shuttle service provides an example of the efficacy of coordinated private sector investment in providing reliable, nonautomotive commute options. It is funded by a Property-Based Business Improvement District (PBID), whereby business owners have elected to pay a small assessment on commercial square footage to support the shuttle’s operation. Although the project was initially proposed and planned by city staff, the city’s role in funding and operation was phased out in the first 3 years of operation, and the shuttle has operated successfully for 15 years with very little assistance from the local redevelopment agency.

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Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

White Flint Sector Plan

White Flint Sector Plan ImageWhite Flint is in North Bethesda, an urbanized area in Montgomery County, Maryland. The White Flint Sector Plan covers 430 acres within a 4-mile radius of the White Flint Metrorail station, part of the rapid transit system operated by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. To support significant new residential and commercial development, the sector plan identified $313.4 million worth of infrastructure and public facility needs.

This case study focuses on the provisions in the plan related to implementation and financing of the proposed infrastructure and public facility projects, and describes how implementation has actually progressed since the plan was adopted in early 2010. The White Flint Sector Plan is an excellent example of a comprehensive plan for transit-oriented development with a strong focus on implementation. Montgomery County’s experience also illustrates the challenges that can be involved in financing complex infrastructure and public facility projects, even with a well-thought-out plan.

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Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

West Dublin BART

West Dublin BART Thumbnail ImageThe West Dublin Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) station opened in February 2011 after a nearly 15-year effort to fund and construct the station. The station is in suburban Alameda County, on the border between the towns of Dublin and Pleasanton. The West Dublin station was completed as an “infill” station between the Dublin/Pleasanton and Castro Valley stations, a ten-mile stretch of the BART line with no stops. The construction of the West Dublin Station provides a unique example of using joint development as a value capture strategy to fund the construction of a rail station and the provision of TOD infrastructure.

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Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

Greater University Circle

Greater University Circle ImageUniversity Circle is a square-mile district about four miles east of downtown Cleveland that is home to approximately 40 education, health, arts, and social services institutions. Since the 1950s, the University Circle institutions have worked together to plan the development of the Circle, acquire land, and provide services such as landscaping, policing, and marketing through an organization called University Circle, Inc. In 2005, the Cleveland Foundation initiated a new effort to bring the district’s institutions together to address critical infrastructure needs and revitalize the surrounding “greater” University Circle neighborhoods. Through these two efforts, the institutions in University Circle have contributed to infrastructure development in a number of ways – including providing up-front money to pay for design and planning, supporting grant applications, and even taking the lead in raising funding and constructing streetscape and other improvements. This case study reviews the range of ways that anchor institutions have contributed to infrastructure and transit-oriented development in the Circle.

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Funding and Financing Tools and Strategy

The Burbank Collection Community Facilities District

City of BurbankThe Burbank Collection is an $80 million project in downtown Burbank that includes 40,000 square feet of urban retail space, 118 condominiums, and a 723-space parking garage that provides parking for residents, retail customers, and the public. Champion Real Estate Companies, the developer built the garage as part of the larger project. The city then purchased the public component of the garage from the developer using the proceeds of a bond issuance backed by a combination of tax-increment financing and a community facilities district special tax.

This case study discusses how the publicly owned component of the garage was financed and how it is managed today, including the challenges involved in managing this type of shared-ownership, shared-access parking.

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Parking Management Strategy

Centre City Downtown Parking Management

Centre City Downtown Parking Management Thumbnail Image

For 15 years San Diego’s Centre City has pursued an innovative, multitiered parking management district strategy that uses local resources to generate revenue and alleviate parking demand. Parking management in Centre City has benefitted from the city’s long-term strategy for allocating parking revenues. Centre City has used a two-pronged approach to alleviating demand issues; first, smart meters were implemented to increase on-street parking occupancy and two parking structures were built in areas with chronic parking shortages. Meter revenues financed the construction of the structures.

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Parking Management Strategy

Redwood City Downtown Meter Zone

Redwood City Downtown  Thumbnail Image

Over the past five years Redwood City has taken an aggressive approach to satisfying its downtown parking demand. To manage the area’s existing parking options – including on-street meters and multiple public and private garages – Redwood City developed a parking management district: the Downtown Meter Zone Program. The program altered rates and time limits for metered parking in downtown to stimulate more patron turnover, generate more revenue from the existing supply, and ensure efficient use of parking spaces. This program coincided with the development of a major retail/cinema center in the area for which the Redwood City Redevelopment Agency financed a 590-space underground garage. Downtown Redwood City demonstrates that a coordinated policy that uses both on-street and garage spaces and that builds off existing assets can be an effective strategy.

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Parking Management Strategy

Old Pasadena Parking Management Zone

Old Pasadena Parking Thumbnail Image

Old Pasadena’s parking management strategy is one of the most frequently cited examples of a multipronged approach to alleviating parking issues and funding improvements in the Southern California region. Innovative parking strategies have assisted the revival of Old Pasadena as a commercial destination, and the area is now one of the most vibrant downtowns in the region. In the early 1990s, the city devised two creative parking policies to fund downtown improvements and mitigate future parking congestion. First, the city reinstalled parking meters in the downtown and used meter revenues to finance local improvements, establishing a parking management district with a local citizen advisory board that set meter rates and enacted parking policy in the district. The net revenues of the program financed a number of streetscape improvements that improved the commercial viability of Old Pasadena. Secondly, a parking credit program for commercial property owners satisfied off-street parking requirements in three downtown public parking structures. In 2004, the Old Pasadena Management District assumed control of the administration and management of the structures. Proactive management strategies have helped boost garage occupancy rates, an added benefit to the local merchant community.

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Parking Management Strategy

Aurora Strategic Parking Plan and Program

Aurora Strategic Parking ImageThe City of Aurora in the Denver metro area recently completed a “Strategic Parking Plan and Program Study” that is an innovative parking management strategy for the planned I-225 light rail corridor, including a corridor-based strategy for financing structured parking. The study envisions implementing fees for parking as well as other parking management tools along the entire light rail corridor, including the transit station parking lots and surrounding residential and commercial parking areas. By managing the parking supply and implementing fees across a broad geographic area, the measures described in the study could create a market for priced parking (i.e., eliminate the option for free parking on the street) and raise revenue to pay for new parking structures at targeted stations. The Aurora study demonstrates the range of parking, management, pricing, and other revenue generating tools that could be included, as well as the challenges involved in implementing this type of corridor-level parking strategy.

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